When cows were introduced to Australia in the 1880s, the Australian dung beetles (used to their kangaroo & wombat fare) turned their noses up at this new dung. This resulted in piles of dung which take months or years to break down. Unfortunately cows don’t like dirty pastures, even though each of them contributes 12 paddies/day, so large amounts of pasture were required to rotate the animals to give time for it to break down so the Australian Dung Beetle Project was created. After introducing the right ones, not only was the problem solved, but they learned that: 1. Over 90% of the faecal nitrogen was removed that’s excreted each year. 2. Uptake of essential minerals in plants was over 80% greater in soils where they’re active! 3. They assist roots and water to penetrate the soil. 4. 96% fewer flies emerged from dung pads! Who knew the lowly little dung beetle is so important?! Harmonious, beautiful, complex interdependent systems! Wheels within wheels….